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英语单词that,which的用法及区别

xiawuyouke 趣味英语 2022-11-17 11:03:08 17 0

这两个词在用作关系代词以引导定语从句时,在句中的职能意义完全相同,有时可以互换使用。例如:

Was the book which(或that)you were reading a novel by Lu Xun?你看的那本书是否是鲁迅写的小说?

但它们的使用场合在大多数情况下是有所不同的,区别如下:

(一)在现代英语里,非限制性的定语从句只能用which(不用that)来引导,which之前要用逗号。例:

I have bought a new Hong Kong Island Street Map,which I'll show you when you call.

(二)如果定语从句所修饰的词是不定代词,一般多用that,不用which。如:

I have told everything that I can to you.

Take any book that you like best.

在这种场合下,that常省略不用。省略了that的从句称为contact clause。例:

Everyone/asked gave me the same answer.

(三)that不能像which那样直接放在介词之后,而必须将介词移至句末。例:

The doctor wrote out a diet to which I was to be restricted.

This is the diet that I spoke to you about.

(四)当定语从句所修饰的词已有限定的修饰词时,必须用which,不能用that。如:

They entered the General Manager's room,which they found unlocked.

(五)如果定语从句所修饰的是一句话,而不是一个词,就用which,不用that(which之前加逗号)。如:

She changed her mind,which made me very angry.

He said he had lost his gold watch,which was untrue.

(六)在no,only,same,little,much和it is等词语之后,一般多用that,不用which。如:

This is the only one that we can lay hold of.

The little of his work that I have seen seems excellent.

It is we that are the future!

He went home,the same evening that he heard the news in Kowloon.

(七)当定语从句所修饰的那个词是数词或所修饰的那个名词之前有一个数词作该名词的定语时,一般用that,不用which。例如:

There are ten,not nine,that I found in that cupboard.

The two necklaces that I bought in the boutique yesterday turn out to be fakes!

(八)在定语从句中作主语代表人时,用that,who或whom,不用which。

例:

Is he the man that sells dogs and cats?

He that would eat the fruit must climb the tree.

Could you think of anyone that can look after the patient for a few days?

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